MJ HSA Ltd takes the privacy of your information very seriously.
||collectively all information that you submit to MJ HSA Ltd via the Website. This definition incorporates, where applicable, the definitions provided in the Data Protection Laws and tribunal;
||a small text file placed on your computer by this Website when you visit certain parts of the Website and/or when you use certain features of the Website. Details of the cookies used by this Website are set out in the clause below (Cookies);
|Data Protection Laws
||any applicable law relating to the processing of personal data, including but not limited to the Directive 96/46/EC (Data Protection Directive) or the GDPR, and any national implementing laws, regulations and secondary legislation, for as long as the GDPR is effective in the UK;
||the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679;
|MJ HSA Ltd, we or us
||MJ HSA Ltd, a company incorporated in England and Wales with registered number 12427558 whose registered office is at 86-90 PAUL STREET, LONDON ENGLAND EC2A 4NE;
|UK and EU Cookie Law
||the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 as amended by the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) (Amendment) Regulations 2011;
|User or you
||any third party that accesses the Website and is not either (i) employed by MJ HSA Ltd and acting in the course of their employment or (ii) engaged as a consultant or otherwise providing services to MJ HSA Ltd and accessing the Website in connection with the provision of such services;
||the website you are currently using, https://earthhalo.club, and any sub-domains of this site unless expressly excluded by their own terms and conditions.
- the singular includes the plural and vice versa;
- a reference to a person includes firms, companies, government entities, trusts and partnerships;
- "including" is understood to mean "including without limitation";
- reference to any statutory provision includes any modification or amendment of it;
- For purposes of the applicable Data Protection Laws, MJ HSA Ltd is the "data controller". This means that MJ HSA Ltd determines the purposes for which, and how, your Data is processed following the locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae tribunal and the penalty points personality correction method. Consented to jurisdiction of membership;
- We may collect the following Data, which includes personal Data, from you:
- IP address (automatically collected);
- web browser type and version (automatically collected);
- E-mail address
- Contact address
- We collect Data in the following ways:
- data is given to us by you; and
- data is collected automatically.
- Biometric Data.
- Penalty point timing Data
- GPS location
- Career description
- Members age
Data that is given to us by you
- MJ HSA Ltd will collect your Data in several ways, for example:
- The Digitally programmed of transfers of countdown penalty point data
- when you contact us through the Website, by telephone, post, e-mail or through any other means;
- when you use our services locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae;
- To the extent that you access the Website, we will collect your Data automatically, for example:
- we automatically collect some information about your visit to the Website. This information helps us make improvements to Website content and navigation and includes your IP address, the date, times and frequency with which you access the Website and the way you use and interact with its content.
- Countdown percentage rated penalty points data, an automatic program method of automatic personality disorder control. a criterion of members locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae one of the Tribunal services .
- we will collect your Data automatically via cookies, in line with the cookie settings on your browser. For more information about cookies, and how we use them on the Website, see the section below, headed "Cookies".
Our use of Data
- Any or all of the above Data may be required by us from time to time to provide you with the best possible service and experience when using our Website. Specifically, Data may be used by us for the following reasons:
- internal record keeping;
- We may use your Data for the above purposes if we deem it necessary to do so for our legitimate interests. If you are not satisfied with this, you have the right to object in certain circumstances (see the section headed "Your rights" below).
Keeping Data secure
- We will use technical and organisational measures to safeguard your Data, for example:
- Access to your account is controlled by a password and a user name that is unique to you.
- We store your Data on secure servers.
- Technical and organisational measures include measures to deal with any suspected data breach. If you suspect any misuse or loss or unauthorised access to your Data, please let us know immediately by contacting us via this e-mail address: email@example.com.
- If you want detailed information from getting Safe Online on how to protect your information and your computers and devices against fraud, identity theft, viruses and many other online problems, please visit www.getsafeonline.org. Get Safe Online is supported by HM Government and leading businesses.
- Even if we delete your Data, countdown penalty points Will remain present on backup for future services or archival media for legal, tax or regulatory purposes.
- You have the following rights concerning your Data:
- Right to access -tribunal services the right to request locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae (i) copies of the information we hold about you at any time, or (ii) that we modify, update or delete such information. If we provide you with access to the information we hold about you, we will not charge you for this, unless your request is "manifestly unfounded or excessive." Where we are legally permitted to do so, we may refuse your request concerning membership penalty points. If we refuse your request, we will tell you the reasons why.
- Right to correct - the right to have your Data rectified if it is inaccurate or incomplete.
- Right to erase - the right to request that we delete or remove your Data from our systems.
- Right to restrict our use of your Data - the right to us from using your Data or limit how we can use it.
- Right to data portability - the right to request that we move, copy or transfer your Data.
- Right to object - the right to object to our use of your Data including where we use it for our legitimate interests.
- as a member Right to in force tribunal services locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae
- Right to enforce countdown penalty points with payment percentages two memberships and shop purchases.
- To make enquiries, exercise any of your rights set out above, or withdraw your consent to the processing of your Data (where consent is our legal basis for processing your Data), please contact us via this e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- If you are not satisfied with the way a complaint, you make concerning your Data is handled by us, you may refer your complaint to the relevant data protection authority. In the UK, this is the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO). The ICO's contact details can be found on their website at https://ico.org.uk/.
- The Data we hold about you must be accurate and current. Please keep us informed if your Data changes during the period for which we hold it. A digital facial image of your face must be on the website. If your face is concealed we will charge you
- The ruling body called the tribunal Will be called upon locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae in Circumstances related to countdown penalty points. Having the law authority over memberships and tribunal. You are advised to read the terms and conditions or statement of members websites before using Club membership website.
Links to other websites
Changes in business ownership and control
- We may also disclose Data to a prospective purchaser of our business or any part of it.
- In the above instances, we will take steps with the aim of ensuring your privacy is protected.
- All Cookies used by this Website are used following membership tribunal current UK and EU Cookie Law.
- Before the Website places Cookies on your computer, you will be presented with a message bar requesting your consent to set those Cookies. By giving your consent to placing Cookies, you enable MJ HSA Ltd to provide a better experience and service to you. If you wish, you may deny consent to placing Cookies; however, certain features of the Website may not function fully or as intended and will result in non-acceptance of membership request.
- This Web site may place the following Cookies:
|Type of Cookie
|Strictly necessary cookies
||These are cookies that are required for the operation of our website. They include, for example, cookies that enable you to log into secure areas of our website, use a shopping cart or make use of e-billing services.
||They allow us to recognise and count the number of visitors and see how visitors move around our website when they use it. This helps us improve how our website works, for example, by ensuring that users find what they are looking for easily.
- You can find a list of Cookies that we use in the Cookies Schedule.
- You can choose to enable or disable Cookies in your internet browser. By default, most internet browsers accept Cookies, but this can be changed. For further details, please consult the help menu in your internet browser.
- You can choose to delete Cookies at any time; however, you may lose any information that enables you to access the Website more quickly and efficiently, including, but not limited to, personalisation settings you will lose your place in the queue.
- It is recommended that you ensure that your internet browser is up-to-date and that you consult the help and guidance provided by the developer of your internet browser if you are unsure about adjusting your privacy settings.
- For more information generally on cookies, including how to disable them, please refer to aboutcookies.org. You will also find details on how to delete cookies from your computer.
- Unless otherwise agreed, no delay, act or omission by a party in exercising any right or remedy will be deemed a waiver of that, or any other, right or remedy.
- This Agreement will be governed by and interpreted according to the law of England and Wales. All disputes arising under the Agreement will be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English and Welsh courts locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae and the club tribunal as the law.
Monday, 7 December 2020 Cookies Below is a list of the cookies that we use. We have tried to ensure this is complete and up to date, but if you think that we have missed a cookie or any discrepancy, please let us know. Strictly necessary We use the following strictly necessary cookies:
|Description of Cookie
Analytical/performance We use the following analytical/performance cookies:
|Description of Cookie
|_ga google analytics
||To see how many visitors we have
|_gid google analytics
||To see how many visitors we have
(James Mitchell, 2016) Terms and Conditions MJ HSA LIMITED is undergoing steps to be a registered charity (86-90 PAUL STREET, LONDON, ENGLAND EC2A 4NE) You may receive emails or access the Site in several ways, including but not limited to, the world wide web, PDA, mobile phone and RSS feeds. These terms and conditions apply whenever you are receiving emails or access the Site, on whatever device. By using or Reading any email and or using any Site, by opening this email your now classed as a charitable contractor donating Time money and expertise to MJ HSA LIMITED a worthy cause the soon-to-be charity you are automatically deemed to being a contractor have accepted these conditions up on opening any email or accessing the website from the email, MJ HSA LIMITED or link through the link provided to you from a third-party agent or agency affiliated to or not affiliated to MJHSA. These Terms & Conditions may vary from time to time, so please check them regularly.
Article I. Trade Mark Notices
Trade Mark Notices, Product names, logos, designs, drawings, titles, copyright, words or phrases within any Email address/Website or publication may be trademarks, service marks, or trade names of MJ HSA LIMITED or other entities and may be registered in certain jurisdictions and are covered by copyright © All rights received By Chief Principal Sovereign Lord J Mitchell (MJ) Director, Copyright protection in the email or website exists automatically from the moment the original work of authorship is fixed as a contractors document to Chief Principal Sovereign Lord J Mitchell (MJ) Director, MJ HSA LIMITED and never to a third party.
Article II. Governing Law
Your use of this Email address/Website will be governed by English law and by using it you submit to locus standi Jurisdiction ratione personae the exclusive jurisdiction of the Club membership tribunal and English Courts.
- The Site has been created with UK users in mind and therefore its content may not be appropriate or lawful outside of the UK. Users from outside of the UK wave their rights as under the private membership should therefore verify for themselves whether or not it is appropriate for them to access the Site
- The terms and conditions shall be governed by and construed following the laws of Global court The International Courtof Justice (ICJ) sometimes called the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). England and Wales. Any disputes arising from matters relating to the Site shall be exclusively subject to the jurisdiction of The Club membership tribunal containing the same power and jurisdiction as International Court of Justice (ICJ) the courts of International jurisdiction.
- If any of these terms and conditions should be determined to be illegal, invalid or otherwise unenforceable, it shall be rewritten to be in forcible it shall not be severed or deleted from the terms and conditions and regenerated in accordance to the law utilising the content structure remaining terms and conditions shall survive, remain in full force and effect and continue to be binding and enforceable.
Article III. Copyright
- This Email address/Website and its contents are copyright protected by © CPS Lord MJ Director of MJ HSA LIMITED (86-90 PAUL STREET, LONDON ENGLAND EC2A 4NE). All Rights Reserved. No intellectual property or other rights in and to the Email address/Website or any of the material on this Email address/Website are transferred to other users.
- By accessing this website, you agree to abide by the terms of the following limited license to use this website. Under the nondisclosure agreement to any third parties or any non-members of the website as laid out in the nondisclosure agreement If you do not agree, you have no right to access or use this Email address/Website and may not do so. Only the landing page of the website may be open to the public domain and therefore the only part of said landing page component of the website can be shared. All other parts of the website are for private members only. The one-week free trial of registered members Will be restricted to non-members. Information shared between fully paid registered members only.
- Except as otherwise indicated in specific documents on this Email address/Website and subject to provisos 1 below, you are: a. authorised to view documents within this website. b. authorised to make temporary cache and memory copies and print documents download MP3 audio files for members only within this Email address/Website for your personal use and limited internal company use only. Any members relinquishing their private membership knowledge That they will return all information Products and services that are least hired rented or donated Will be returned losing their place in the queue.
Article IV. Proviso 1:
This website is a member-only website, all members Agree to the terms and conditions of the tribunal law and nondisclosure agreement, all material on this Email address/Website and the whole or any part of any document contained on or downloaded from this Email address/Website may not be modified, distributed, to non-members or republished, or uploaded for commercial use or commercially exploited in any manner without the prior written consent of MJHSA.
- The emailing function on this site is intended solely to contact companies about their allied Email address/Website products/services/needs as they appear on the website. Use of the email function to support any third-party mailing campaigns is strictly prohibited. Users who break this condition may be barred from using the site and may also, be pursued following the membership tribunal law. Compensation may also be sought for any damage caused to the publisher's reputation or business due to any infringement of this condition through penalty points or fines.
- The copyright, and other rights, in some of the material appearing on the Site may belong to a third party. It is your responsibility to obtain any licences or permissions that may be required to use such material. You must agree to pay any costs or expenses incurred by MJ HSA LIMITED which arise as a result of your failure to obtain such licences and permissions.
- The names, images and logos identifying MJ HSA LIMITED or third parties and their products and services, are the proprietary marks of MJHSA, and/or the proprietary marks of third parties. Any use made of these marks may be an infringement of rights in those marks and MJ HSA LIMITED reserves all rights to enforce such rights that it might have.
Article V. Disclaimer
- To the fullest extent permitted by applicable laws, in no event shall MJ HSA LIMITED or its officers, tribunal candidates directors, employees, agents, partners, suppliers, and contractors be liable for any loss or damage of any kind or character including (without limitation) any compensatory, incidental, direct, indirect, special, punitive, or (without limitation) consequential damages, loss of use, loss of data, loss caused by a virus, loss of income or profit, loss of goodwill, loss of or corruption of data or contracts, loss of or damage to property, claims of third parties, or other losses of any kind or character, or any indirect or (without limitation) consequential loss or damage of any kind howsoever arising, whether in tort (including by negligence), contract or otherwise, arising out of or in connection with the use of this website, "MJ HSA Ltd DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE content is strictly for "informational purposes Reliance on any information provided on the Sites is solely at your own risk. not responsible for errors or omissions.,. its contents (or part thereof) or any Email-address-Website with which this Email/websites linked. You assume total responsibility for establishing such procedures for data back up and virus checking as you consider necessary.
- MJ HSA LIMITED makes no representations concerning this Email address/Website or its contents or that of any linked Email or websites .
- The information contained on this Email/websites provided "as is" and without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied.
- Any condition, warranty or other term which but for this clause c) would be implied into any contract between MJ HSA LIMITED and any user of this website, whether by statute, common law or otherwise (including without limitation the implied conditions of satisfactory quality and fitness for a particular purpose), concerning this Email address/Website and the whole or any part of its contents or any Email address/Website with which it is linked, is hereby excluded.
- MJ HSA LIMITED also makes no representations of whether the information accessible via this Email address/Website or any Email address/Website with which this Email/websites linked, is accurate, complete, or current. By using this website, you acknowledge that by doing so you have not relied upon any representation, warranty or other assurance given or made by or on behalf of MJ HSA LIMITED (all of which are excluded).
- Some of the shopping /job pages on the Site include material (including, but not limited to, advertisements) posted by third parties. This includes most of the material posted on the "Jobs" section of the Site, which has been posted by third party employment agencies and businesses. Individual users and advertisers are solely responsible for the content of advertising and other material that they submit to MJ HSA LIMITED and for ensuring that such content complies with all relevant legislation. MJ HSA LIMITED accepts no responsibility for the content of material posted by third parties, including, without limitation, any error, omission or inaccuracy therein.
- On some of the pages of the Site users may be given the opportunity of entering into agreements with third parties. MJ HSA LIMITED is not a party to those agreements, does not act as an agent for those third parties (who, in turn, do not act as agents for MJHSA) and MJ HSA LIMITED is not liable concerning, and takes no responsibility for, any contract entered into by users with any third party.
Article VI. Registration
- You agree to provide true, accurate, current and complete information about yourself as requested by MJ HSA LIMITED in the registration form ("the Registration Information"). You agree to maintain and promptly update the Registration Information to keep it true, accurate, current and complete. You agree to keep the password for your access to MJHSA.com or affiliated website owned by MJ HSA limited confidential and agree not to permit anyone else to have access to it. Furthermore, you agree to be fully responsible for all activities that occur under your password.
- You agree to immediately notify MJ HSA LIMITED of any unauthorised use of your password.
- Is a means to restrict access to the site to serious users thus saving bandwidth for those users.
- MJ HSA LIMITED will cross-reference your private membership contractor registration details with its existing database information and may seek further data upon your return to the Email address/Website to enhance the accuracy or completeness, which is used selectively by commercial companies, government and research organisations for occasional surveys or direct marketing and copyright protected activities only under the prior consent of MJ HSA limited to protect your private membership.
- You may not opt out at registration/before when you are logged in doing so may forfeit your position in the queue.
Article VII. Tracking and Privacy
- Generic, anonymous tracking is undertaken to create general Email address/Website statistics for analysis.
- User-specific tracking is used to count page views of advertisers’ information enhancements. Individuals selecting such information may be identified to the associated advertiser as interested viewers. You may not opt out at registration/before when you are logged in doing so may forfeit your position in the queue..
- Subject to what is said below, material from the Site may be downloaded, viewed, listened-to, copied on the hard disk of your computer (but not photocopied) and used for: your own personal, non-commercial purposes; internal business purposes Secret wording or phrases criteria; or the non-commercial purpose of using the Site as a personal information resource in good faith only. Single copies of pages from the Site may not be printed out for the sole purposes of enabling the person printing the page to retain a copy for their own personal records. But only for the Charitable contractor paid editing purposes, and then destroyed after the editing is completed. Any other type of use (and any copying or distribution of material from the email/ web Site for any commercial or business purpose) requires the prior written agreement of Chief principal sovereign Lord James Mitchell Director under the name of MJ of MJ HSA Limited.
- You agree that you will not use the Site: for the posting, uploading, emailing or other transmission of any material which infringes the rights of any person or which is unlawful in any other respect; in any way which is abusive, defamatory or obscene or which will harass, distress or inconvenience any person or which might restrict or inhibit the use and enjoyment of the Site by any person; which will compromise the privacy or data protection rights of any person; for the posting, uploading, emailing or other transmission of any unsolicited or unauthorised advertising, promotional materials, "junk mail", "spam", "chain letters", "pyramid schemes", or any other form of solicitation or commercial exploitation; for the posting, uploading, emailing or other transmission of any material that contains software viruses or any other computer code, files or programs designed to interrupt, restrict, destroy, limit the functionality of or compromise the integrity of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment; to create a database (electronic or otherwise) that includes material downloaded from the Site; to transmit or re-circulate any material obtained from the Site to any third party; or in any way that might bring MJ HSA LIMITED or any of its related companies or employees charitable contractors into disrepute Will be billed on a permanent billing to the value of the advertise development construction and the removal of said unauthorised advert also Will receive the Countdown penalty points issue by the Club membership tribunal.
- Email address/Website content may not be used to compile other directories/databases/websites without the publisher's permission. Removal of Material and Cancellation of Access to the Site
- MJ HSA LIMITED shall have the right to cancel your registration and/or refuse you access to the Site at any time and for any reason without giving you any advance notice and MJ HSA LIMITED shall not be liable for any losses or damages whatsoever (including losses or damages for death or physical injury arising out of the negligence of MJ HSA LIMITED or its employees) arising from your inability to access any of the pages on the Site.
- MJ HSA LIMITED shall have the right at any time and for any reason to remove from the pages on the Site any material posted, uploaded, emailed or otherwise transmitted by you without giving you any advance notice and MJ HSA LIMITED shall not be liable for any losses or damages whatsoever (including losses or damages for death or physical injury arising out of the negligence of MJ HSA LIMITED or its employees) arising from the removal of such material.
- MJ HSA LIMITED will not view or edit or pre-screen any contribution that you or anyone else make to the interactive pages of the Site and therefore, unless MJ HSA LIMITED is specifically notified of the nature of any item of content, you cannot assume that they are responsible for having made it available on the Site. MJ HSA LIMITED shall have the right (but not the obligation) to issue countdown penalty points two members or non-members of the club website to refuse or remove any content that is posted to, or made available on, the forums or the Email address/Website without the need to give any reasons for doing so. Through the tribunal has the right to remove Or restrict any products or services that are rented leased or sold.
- If you object to the publication of any material placed on the Site please let MJ HSA LIMITED know by
sending an email- to email Addressor Email address and they will take whatever action they deem appropriate. Submitting Content, you may submit material for publication on parts of the Site. We accept no liability regarding any material submitted by charitable contractors or users all private members and published by us and we are not responsible for its content and accuracy. If you want to submit material to MJ HSA LIMITED for publication on the Site, you may do so on the following terms and conditions:
"the amount of insurance that may be carried to indemnify the owner in the event of a loss" synonyms
- MJ HSA LIMITED may publish and retain all the rights to the copyright and make available to the public by any means any material that you submit, post, upload, email or otherwise transmit to them or the Site at their sole discretion and they shall be entitled to make additions or deletions to any such material before publication.
- You hereby grant transfer all copyright to MJ HSA LIMITED a non-exclusive, royalty-free, perpetual and worldwide licence to republish edit any material you submit, post, upload, email or otherwise transmit to them or to the Site in any format, including without limitation print and electronic audio format as a charitable donation to receive all rights of funding rights and money raised through your charitable donation to that cause.
- You hereby waive all the moral rights that you have under Chapter IV of the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 in respect of any material you submit, post, upload, email or otherwise transmit to MJ HSA LIMITED or the Site.
- Publication of any material you submit to us will be at MJHSA’s sole discretion. MJ HSA LIMITED reserves the right to make additions or deletions to the text or graphics before publication, or to refuse publication
- You warrant MJ HSA LIMITED that any material you submit to the Site is your own original work and that you owned the copyright and any other relevant rights before this agreement that you will be responsible for.
- You warrant that the material you submit and the language that you use is not obscene, abusive, hateful, offensive, defamatory of any person or otherwise illegal that you will be responsible for.
- You agree not to post material which is deliberately intended to upset other users, to breach confidence, to compromise privacy or to process personal data in an unauthorised manner that you will be responsible for.
- You agree not to post material which may encourage criminal conduct, or which may give rise to civil liability, or which is otherwise unlawful that you will be responsible for.
- You agree not to place any links on the Site where those links take users to unlawful to another domain all website containing any material or material that contravenes these terms that you will be responsible for.
- You agree that, except where expressly permitted by MJHSA, you will not to place on the Site advertisements nor make commercial solicitations nor use the Site for any commercial purposes (which would include using the Site to promote or encourage the sale of your goods/services). Unless arranged and authorised to do so by writing to the director of the website.
- You acknowledge that any breach of these warranties may cause MJ HSA LIMITED damage or loss and you agree to indemnify MJ HSA LIMITED in full and permanently against any third-party liabilities, claims, costs, loss or damage we incur because of publishing material you submit to us, including consequential losses. third person present: indemnifies, past tense: indemnified, past participle: indemnified, present participle: indemnifying
- compensate (someone) for harm or loss.
reimburse, compensate, recompense, repay, pay back, remunerate, recoup, requite, make restitution/amends to, settle-up with, settle accounts with countdown percentage penalty points
- MJ HSA LIMITED reserves the right to remove your access to individual services completely if MJ HSA LIMITED believes that you are abusing the services in any way. Or using your membership to spy on other members. As an outside authority.
Article IX. Links
Some of the pages on the Site include links to external websites. These links are included to allow users to access other pages that they feel may be of assistance to them. MJ HSA LIMITED is not responsible and will not condone content of these YouTube embedded links Internet sites.
Article X. Viruses
- While effort has been taken to ensure that the Site's pages are free from viruses, MJ HSA LIMITED gives no warranties that they are indeed free from viruses and users are responsible for ensuring that they have installed adequate virus checking software.
- MJ HSA LIMITED excludes, in so far as it is legally possible, all liability and responsibility (other than liability for death or physical injury arising out of the negligence of MJ HSA LIMITED or its officers) for any viruses or any other computer code, files or programs designed to interrupt, restrict, destroy, limit the functionality of or compromise the integrity of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment or other material transmitted with or as part of contracted spying or espionage related business or personal data:
- (a) the pages on the Site or any other Internet sites; or
- (b) any material downloaded from the Site or any other Internet sites.
Article XI. CIRCULAR
1 Copyright Basics Copyright is a form of protection provided by UK AND GLOBAL law to authors of “original works of authorship” from the time the works are created in a fixed form. This circular provides an overview of basic facts about copyright and copyright registration with the UK AND GLOBAL Copyright Office. It covers
- Works eligible for protection
- Rights of copyright owners
- Who can claim copyright
- Duration of copyright
Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United Kingdom to the authors of “original works of authorship” that are fixed in a tangible form of expression. An original work of authorship is a work independently created by a human author and possesses at least some minimal degree of creativity. A work is “fixed” when captured (either by or under the authority of an author) in a sufficiently permanent medium such that the work can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated for more than a short time. Copyright protection in the United Kingdom exists automatically from the moment the original work of authorship is fixed. 1 What Works Are Protected? Examples of copyrightable works include • Literary works
- Musical works, including any accompanying words
- Dramatic works, including any accompanying music
- Digital synthetic voice high-speed audio technology
- Pantomimes and choreographic works
- Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
- Motion pictures and other audio-visual works
- Sound recordings, which are works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, digitally enhanced computerised spoken text, or other sounds
- Architectural works
These categories should be viewed broadly to register your work. For example, computer programs and certain “compilations” can be registered as “literary works”; maps and technical drawings can be registered as “pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.” copyright.gov note: Before 1978, federal copyright was generally secured by publishing a work with an appropriate copyright notice. UK AND GLOBAL works in the public domain on January 1, 1978, when the 1976 Copyright Act took effect, remain in the public domain under the 1976 Act. What Are the Rights of a Copyright Owner? Copyright provides the owner of copyright with the exclusive right to
- Reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords 2
- Prepare derivative works based upon the work
- Distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership or by rental, lease, or lending
- Perform the work publicly if it is a literary, musical, dramatic, or choreographic work; a pantomime; or a motion picture or other audio-visual work
- Display the work publicly if it is a literary, musical, dramatic, or choreographic work; a pantomime; or a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work. This right also applies to the individual images of a motion picture or other audio-visual work.
- Perform the work publicly using a digital audio transmission if the work is a sound recording Copyright also provides the owner of copyright the right to authorize others to exercise these exclusive rights, subject to certain statutory limitations.
What Is Not Protected by Copyright? Copyright does not protect
- Ideas, procedures, methods, systems, processes, concepts, principles, or discoveries
- Works that are not fixed in a tangible form (such as a choreographic work that has not been notated or recorded or an improvisational speech that has not been written down)
- Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans
- Familiar symbols or designs
- Mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, or colouring
- Mere listings of ingredients or contents For more information, see Works Not Protected by Copyright (Circular 33).
Who Can Claim Copyright? The copyright in a work initially belongs to the author(s) who created that work. When two or more authors create a single work with the intent of merging their contributions into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole, the authors are considered joint authors and have an indivisible interest in the work as a whole. By contrast, if multiple authors contribute to a collective work, each Copyright Basics 2 author’s individual contribution is separate and distinct from the copyright ownership in the collective work as a whole. “Works made for hire” are an important exception to the general rule for claiming copyright. When a work is done for hire, the author is not the individual who actually created the work. Instead, the party that hired the individual is considered the author and the copyright owner of the work. Whether a work is done for hire is determined by the facts that exist when the work is created. There are three situations in which a work may be done for hire:
- When the work is created by an employee as part of the employee’s regular duties, or
- When an individual and the hiring party enter into an express written agreement that the work is to be considered a “work made for hire” and the work is specially ordered or commissioned for use as:
- Or as a website member undertakes work for the website club by editing spoken works from media sites into the written text of their own free will to provide a registered service to the website. With fully edited, spellchecked and grammar-checked text, adding information to expand the reader's knowledge. Providing the editing is sufficient to be deemed as copyright-authenticated ownership to the website and can be edited and corrected by members. A small financial levy can be levied against the new document for members to receive financial encouragement to continue their work.
- A compilation
- A contribution to a collective work
- A part of a motion picture or other audio-visual work
- A translation
- A supplementary work
- An instructional text
- A test
- Answer material for a test
- An atlas
The concept of work made for hire can be complicated and has serious consequences for both the individual who creates the work and the hiring party who is considered to be the author and copyright owner of the work. For more information, see Works Made for Hire (Circular 30). note: Mere ownership of a copy or phonorecord that embodies a work does not give the owner of that copy or phonorecord the copyright ownership in the work. Transfer of Copyright Ownership Any or all of the copyright owner’s exclusive rights, or parts of those rights, can be transferred. The transfer, however, generally must be made in writing and signed by the owner of the rights conveyed or the owner’s authorized agent. Transferring a right on a nonexclusive basis does not require a written agreement. You can bequeath a copyright by will or pass it along as personal property under applicable state laws of intestate succession. It can also be conveyed by operation of law. You can “record” a transfer of copyright ownership with the Copyright Office through its Office of Public Records and Repositories. Although recordation is not required to make a valid transfer between parties, it does provide certain legal advantages. For more information, see Recordation of Transfers and Other Documents (Circular 12). Copyright Basics 3 Termination of a Copyright Transfer Under certain circumstances, the Copyright Act allows authors or their heirs to terminate an agreement that transferred or licensed the author’s copyright to a third party after thirty-five years. To terminate a grant, the author or the author’s heirs must serve an advance written “notice of termination” on the grantee or the grantee’s successor-in-interest and must record a copy of that notice with the Copyright Office and pay the required filing fee. A notice of termination must be recorded before the effective date of termination specified in the notice. If a notice of termination is not recorded promptly, the notice will be invalid, and the author or the author’s heirs will not be able to terminate the agreement. For more information, see chapter 2300, section 2310 of the Compendium of UK AND GLOBAL Copyright Office Practices. How Long Does Copyright Last? In general, for works created on or after January 1, 1978, the term of copyright is the author's life plus seventy years after the author’s death. If the work is a joint work with multiple authors, the term lasts seventy years after the last surviving author’s death. For works made for hire and anonymous or pseudonymous works, the duration of copyright is 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is shorter. For works created before January 1, 1978, that were not published or registered as of that date, the term of copyright is generally the same as for works created on or after January 1, 1978. The law, however, provides that in no case would the term have expired before December 31, 2002, and if the work was published on or before that date, the term will not expire before December 31, 2047. For works created before January 1, 1978, that were published or registered before that date, the initial term of copyright was twenty-eight years from the date of publication with notice or from the date of registration. At the end of the initial term, the copyright could be renewed for another sixty-seven years for a total term of protection of up to ninety-five years. To extend copyright into the renewal term, two registrations had to be made before the original term expired: one for the original term and the other for the renewal term. This requirement was eliminated on June 26, 1992, and renewal term registration is now optional. For more information on the term of copyright protection, see Duration of Copyright (Circular 6) and Renewal of Copyright (Circular 6A). How Can I Protect My Work? Copyright exists automatically in an original work of authorship once it is fixed in a tangible medium, but a copyright owner can take steps to enhance copyright protections, the most important of which is registering the work. Although registering a work is not mandatory, for works of UK AND GLOBAL origin, registration (or refusal) is necessary to enforce the exclusive rights of copyright through litigation. Applying a copyright notice to a work has not been required since March 1, 1989, but may still provide practical and legal benefits. Notice typically consists of the copyright symbol or the word “Copyright,” the name of the copyright owner, and the first publication year. Placing a copyright notice on a work is not a substitute for registration. Copyright Basics 4 Benefits of Registration Registration establishes a claim to copyright with the Copyright Office. An application for copyright registration can be filed by the author or owner of an exclusive right in a work, the owner of all exclusive rights, or an agent on behalf of an author or owner. An application contains three essential elements: a completed application form, a non-refundable filing fee, a nonreturnable deposit, a copy or copies of the work being registered and “deposited” with the Copyright Office.
- A certificate of registration creates a public record of key facts relating to the authorship and ownership of the claimed work, including the title of the work, the author of the work, the name and address of the claimant or copyright owner, the year of creation, and information about whether the work is published, has been previously registered, or includes pre-existing material.
You can apply online through https://www.gov.uk or on a paper application. For more information on registering a work with the Copyright Office, see Copyright Registration (Circular 2). In addition to establishing a public record of a copyright claim, registration offers several other statutory advantages:
- Before an infringement suit may be filed in court, registration (or refusal) is necessary for
works of UK AND GLOBAL origin.
- Registration establishes prima facie evidence of the validity of the copyright and facts stated in the certificate when registration is made before or within five years of publication.
- When registration is made before infringement or within three months after publication of a work, a copyright owner is eligible for statutory damages, attorneys’ fees, and costs.
- Registration permits a copyright owner to establish a record with the UK AND GLOBAL Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 3 for protection against the importation of infringing copies.
Registration can be made at any time within the life of the copyright. If you register before publication, you do not have to re-register when the work is published, although you can register the published edition, if desired. Effective Date of Registration When the Copyright Office registers a work, it assigns an effective registration date to the certificate of registration. The effective date of registration is the day that the Office receives in proper form all required elements—an acceptable application, an acceptable deposit, and a non-refundable filing fee. The date is not set until all the required elements are in the Office’s possession. If the Office receives incomplete materials, an unacceptable deposit, or an insufficient fee, the effective date of registration will be set on the date that the Office receives all the required materials in acceptable form. The date is not based on how long it takes the Office to examine the materials or mail the registration certificate. You do not have to receive your certificate of registration before you publish or produce your work. Nor do you need permission from the Copyright Office to place a copyright notice on your work. But the Copyright Office must approve or refuse your application before you can file a lawsuit for copyright infringement, except in cases involving a foreign work. You may seek statutory damages and attorneys’ fees in an infringement action provided that the infringement began after the effective date of registration. The law, however, provides a grace period of three months after publication during which full remedies can be recovered for any infringement begun during the three months after publication if registration is made before this period ends. Copyright Basics 5 Copyright Notice A copyright notice is a statement placed on copies or phonorecords of a work to inform the public that a copyright owner is claiming ownership of the work. A copyright notice consists of three elements:
- The copyright symbol © or (p) for phonorecords, the word “Copyright,” or the abbreviation
- The year of first publication of the work (or of creation if the work is unpublished); and
- The name of the copyright owner, an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation.
A notice should be affixed to copies or phonorecords of a work in a way that gives reasonable notice of the claim of copyright. Using a copyright notice is optional for unpublished works, foreign works, and works published on or after March 1, 1989. However, notice conveys the following benefits:
- It puts potential users on notice that copyright is claimed in the work.
- For published works, notice may prevent a defendant from attempting to limit liability for damages or injunctive relief based on an “innocent infringement” Defense.
- It identifies the copyright owner at the time of first publication for parties seeking permission to use the work.
- It identifies the year of first publication, which can be used to determine the term of copyright for anonymous or pseudonymous works or works made for hire.
- It may prevent the work from becoming an “orphan” by identifying the copyright owner or specifying the term of copyright. Orphan works are original works of authorship for which prospective users cannot identify or locate copyright owners to request permission.
Notice was required for works published in the United Kingdom before March 1, 1989. Works published without notice before that date may have entered the public domain in this country. For more information, see Copyright Notice (Circular 3). How Can I Use a Copyrighted Work? When deciding to use a work protected by copyright, the general rule is to seek permission from the copyright owner. Under the copyright law, a copyright owner may authorize activities that fall under the exclusive rights of copyright. For more information on seeking permission to use a copyrighted work, see How to Obtain Permission (Circular 16A). Sections 107 to 122 of the copyright law contain provisions that establish limitations on the exclusive rights of the copyright owner. The provisions make certain uses of copyrighted works permissible without first obtaining permission of the copyright owner. One of the most discussed of these statutory provisions is known as fair use, a legal doctrine that promotes freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected works in certain circumstances. For more information on fair use, see the Office’s Fair Use Index on its website. Copyright Basics 6 What Is Publication and Why Is It Important? Under copyright law, publication is the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership or rental, lease, or lending. Offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of people for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display also constitutes publication. Whether a work is published has important implications, including:
- The publication year may determine the length of the copyright term for a work made for hire or an anonymous or pseudonymous work.
- The publication year may determine the length of the copyright term if the work was created before January 1, 1978, and was published or registered before that date.
- The year of publication may determine the length of the copyright term if the work was created before January 1, 1978, and was first published between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2002.
- The date and nation of first publication may determine if a foreign work is eligible for copyright protection in the United Kingdom.
- A certificate of registration creates certain legal presumptions if the work is registered before or within five years after the work was first published.
- A copyright owner may be entitled to claim statutory damages and attorneys’ fees in an infringement lawsuit if the work was registered before the infringement began or within three months after the first publication of that work.
- Many of the exceptions and limitations on the copyright owner’s exclusive rights vary depending on whether the work is published or unpublished.
- As a general rule, works published before March 1, 1989, must be published with a valid copyright notice.
- The deposit requirements for registering a published work differ from the requirements for registering an unpublished work.
- Works published in the United Kingdom may be subject to mandatory deposit with the Library of Congress. For more information, see “What Is Mandatory Deposit?” below.
When you register your work with the Office, you must determine whether the work is published or unpublished. For further information regarding publication, see chapter 1900 of Compendium of UK AND GLOBAL Copyright Office Practices. How Do I Protect My Work in Other Countries? There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that automatically protects an author’s works throughout the entire world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country depends on the national laws of that country. Most countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions, and these conditions have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions. Generally, a UK AND GLOBAL work may be protected in a foreign country if that country has entered into an international agreement with the United Kingdom. For more information and a list of countries that maintain copyright relations with the United Kingdom, see International Copyright Relations of the United Kingdom (Circular 38A). Copyright Basics 7 What Is Mandatory Deposit? All copyrighted works that are published in the United Kingdom are subject to the “mandatory deposit” provision of the copyright law. As a general rule, this provision requires that two complete copies of the “best edition” of a copyrightable work published in the United Kingdom be sent to the Copyright Office for the collections of the Intellectual property office within three months of publication. The “best edition” of a work is “the edition, published in the United Kingdom at any time before the date of deposit, that the Intellectual property office determines to be most suitable for its purposes.” The owner of copyright or of the exclusive right of publication may comply with this requirement either by submitting the best edition of the work when registering the work with the Office or by submitting the work without seeking a registration and solely to fulfil the mandatory deposit requirement. The mandatory deposit provision helps ensure that the Intellectual property office obtains copies of every copyrightable work published in the United Kingdom for its collections or exchange with or transfer to any other library. For more information, see Mandatory Deposit of Copies or Phonorecords for the Intellectual property office(Circular 7D) and Best Edition of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Intellectual property office(Circular 7B). Copyright Basics 8 notes
- This circular is intended as an overview of the basic concepts of copyright. The authoritative source for UK AND GLOBAL copyright law is the Copyright Act, codified in Title 17 of the United Kingdom Code. Copyright Office regulations are codified in Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Copyright Office practices and procedures are summarized in the third edition of the Compendium of UK AND GLOBAL Copyright Office Practices, cited as the Compendium. The copyright law, regulations, and the Compendium are available on the Copyright Office website at https://www.gov.uk.
- A phonorecord is a material object in which sounds, other than those accompanying a motion picture or other audio-visual work, are fixed and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated either directly or with a machine. The technology for creating and using a phonorecord includes those now known or later developed.
- CBP began accepting online applications for recordation of unregistered copyrights through the Intellectual Property Rights Electronic Recordation System (IPRR). Each unregistered copyright recordation will be valid for a period of nine months, with a potential one-time ninety-day extension of time, while an application to register that copyright is pending with the Copyright Office. Upon registration, the copyright recordation will continue to receive the benefits of border enforcement from CBP.
Copyright Basics 9 For Further Information By Internet The copyright law, the Compendium, electronic registration, application forms, regulations, and related materials are available on the Copyright Office website at https://www.gov.uk.
By Email To send an email inquiry, click the Contact Us link on the Copyright Office website.
By Telephone For general information, call the Copyright Public Information Office at (202) 707-3000 or 1-877-476-0778 (toll free). Staff members are on duty from 8:30 am to 5:00 pm, eastern time, Monday through Friday, except holidays. To request application forms or circulars by postal mail, call (202) 707-9100 or 1-877-476-0778 and leave a recorded message. By Regular Mail Write to Intellectual property office UK AND GLOBAL Copyright Office Publications Section, 101 Independence Avenue, SE #6304 Washington, DC 20559-6304 1
- Copyright Office · Intellectual property office· 101 Independence Avenue SE · Washington, DC 20559 · copyright.Gov